By Paul Bartha
By Parallel Reasoning is the 1st finished philosophical exam of analogical reasoning in additional than 40 years designed to formulate and justify criteria for the serious review of analogical arguments. It proposes a normative conception with distinct specialize in using analogies in arithmetic and technology.
In fresh many years, study on analogy has been ruled by means of computational theories whose aim has been to version analogical reasoning as a mental technique. those theories have dedicated little recognition to normative questions. during this ebook Bartha proposes sturdy analogical argument needs to articulate a transparent courting that's in a position to generalization. this concept ends up in a suite of specific versions for the severe research of well known kinds of analogical argument. an identical middle precept makes it attainable to narrate analogical reasoning to norms and values of clinical perform. Reasoning via analogy is justified since it moves an optimum stability among conservative values, resembling simplicity and coherence, and innovative values, reminiscent of fruitfulness and theoretical unification. Analogical arguments also are justified via attract symmetry--like circumstances are to be handled alike.
In elaborating the relationship among analogy and those vast epistemic ideas, By Parallel Reasoning deals a singular contribution to explaining how analogies can play an enormous position within the affirmation of medical hypotheses
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Extra info for By Parallel Reasoning
6, that applies equally to plausible and implausible analogical arguments. If a philosophical justiﬁcation for such a rule were to succeed, it would prove too much. There are difﬁculties even in stating what it means to have a general philosophical justiﬁcation for analogical arguments (as opposed to justiﬁcation for a particular argument). One difﬁculty derives from diversity. 6, there is no “method” of analogy, no single straightforward inference rule that characterizes the argument form. Another difﬁculty derives from the weakness of the argument form, particularly if we frame the conclusion in terms of prima facie plausibility.
In a case of perfect symmetry, one has as much reason to treat the target hypothesis as worthy of investigation as one does the source hypothesis. In the case of an analogical argument that satisﬁes the requirements of my theory, one still has adequate reasons for doing so. Salmon, following Feigl, makes a useful distinction between two sorts of justiﬁcation: validation and vindication. An inference is validated by showing that it is governed by an accepted rule. A rule of inference is justiﬁed by showing that it can be derived from other accepted rules or principles.
In essence, this view assimilates analogical arguments to enumerative induction. Just as we might sample a small population of A’s to ﬁnd out the proportion that share the attribute B, we sample 22. If we have reason to believe that our sampling procedure is not random, then we should not draw the general conclusion. 23. Carnap and his followers have made serious attempts to formulate principles of analogy in inductive logic. Carnap ((1980) and elsewhere) uses concepts of “analogy by similarity” and “analogy by proximity” to incorporate prior beliefs about similarity into inductive logic.