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By Eberhard W. Sauer

Challenging either conventional and stylish theories, this choice of items from a global diversity of individuals explores the separation of the human previous into background, archaeology and their similar sub-disciplines.

Each case learn demanding situations the validity of this separation and asks how we will be able to stream to a extra holistic procedure within the research of the connection among heritage and archaeology.

While the point of interest is at the historic international, rather Greece and Rome, rhe classes learnded during this publication make it an crucial addition to all stories of heritage and archaeology.

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Nevertheless, it is problematic to claim that ‘archaeology’ and ‘history’ are not more closely related to each other than is ‘archaeology’, for example, to geology or botany. Though the methods applied by such disciplines and the research results achieved can be of fundamental importance, there is only a partial overlap in the questions, whereas the overlap between ‘history’ and ‘archaeology’ is total. There are no differences whatsoever in the questions that ‘both disciplines’ would like to answer, only the different nature of the evidence does not allow either ‘archaeologists’ or ‘historians’ to explore certain questions or periods.

No specialist discipline within the field of cultural history has a future in isolation. Even though Hawkes’s ladder of inference (1954: 161–2) which summarized similar observations has been criticized (Moreland 2001: 13–15), it is undeniable that archaeological evidence taken on its own tends to allow more definite interpretations of technological processes or the material traces of subsistence economy than of social structure or religion. While the former tend to follow a pragmatic and thus reconstructable logic, social status can manifest itself in an unlimited variety of expressions without any being firmly linked to a specific position in all societies; similarly, religious ritual is by its very nature irrational.

Again there is no ambiguity here about the implied power relationship between the ‘Caesar of archaeology’ and the ‘God of history’. Other passages eradicate any remaining doubts that Klejn really means this rather than being unlucky in his choice of examples: ‘Meanwhile culture as a whole cannot become the subject matter of archaeology because an adequate study of it in statics and dynamics demands a huge involvement and application of other methods’ (Klejn 2001: 17). Here and elsewhere he defines what falls and does not fall within the subject matter of archaeology: ‘Yet not causal explanations of the historical events and processes – they are the business of history, while archaeology is a source-studying discipline’ (Klejn 2001: 127, cf.

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