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Additional resources for Apple - Inside Cocoa- Object-Oriented Programming And The Objective-C Language
34 ■ Making slight modifications. When inheritance is used to deliver generic functionality, set up a protocol, or reuse code, a class is devised that other classes are expected to inherit from. But you can also use inheritance to modify classes that aren’t intended as superclasses. Suppose, for example, that there’s an object that would work well in your program, but you’d like to change one or two things that it does. You can make the changes in a subclass. ■ Previewing possibilities. Subclasses can also be used to factor out alternatives for testing purposes.
The code placed in a superclass is tested by its subclasses. The generic class you find in a library will have been tested by other subclasses written by other developers for other applications. Reusing Tested Code The more software you can borrow from others and incorporate in your own programs, the less you have to do yourself. There’s more software to borrow in an object-oriented programming environment because the code is more reusable. Collaboration between programmers working in different places for different organizations is enhanced, while the burden of each project is eased.
Each class inherits from its superclass, and through its superclass, from all the classes above it in the hierarchy. Every class inherits from the root class. Each new class is the accumulation of all the class definitions in its inheritance chain. In the example above, class D inherits both from C, its superclass, and the root class. Members of the D class will have methods and instance variables defined in all three classes—D, C, and root. Typically, every class has just one superclass and can have an unlimited number of subclasses.