By Richard Evans
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Proof in relation to the 'real world' of antiquity - inscriptions, historiography and criminal speeches - has ruled stories of old Greek and Roman slavery, even if delivering few direct bills via slaves in their subjective reviews. but the ingenious fictions produced by way of the traditional psyche in its literature and artwork offer many representations and discussions of what it felt prefer to be a slave.
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Extra info for A History of Pergamum: Beyond Hellenistic Kingship
Smyrna is noted, however, as a polis consistent in its friendship with Pergamum. 57 Polybius also points out that Attalus even had trouble with some of his Gallic mercenaries who were not inclined to venture too far, especially after there was an eclipse of the moon. 58 Envoys or letters from Lampsacus, Ilium and Alexandria Troas also reached him with assurances of continued support. The Gauls were therefore not settled anywhere close to these established centres. Attalus having led back the Aegosagae to the Hellespont, and made friendly arrangements with the people of Lampsacus, Alexandria and Ilium because they had remained faithful to him, he went on with his forces to Pergamum.
Pergamum was clearly not a market in the movement of goods in Asia Minor, so its resources were limited, at least initially. So how could Eumenes have inflicted such a serious defeat on a ruler with many times the military capability enough to be able to gain not only territorially but – perhaps more significantly – to allow him psychological and physical space? There seems to have been no counter-attack; it is true that Antiochus died A Beginning and an End 17 within a year or two, but his heir had encountered no opposition so could have been free to launch measures against Pergamum, gain some military glory at the start of his reign and enhance his popularity.
You and your children’s children, but of these children no more! 13) Attalus I (241–197) reigned for over forty years, in momentous times both for the entire Mediterranean World and for Pergamum too; and it was during these years that an identifiable state which exceeded the immediate chorē starts to become truly apparent. Whereas Philetairos and Eumenes had exercised somewhat limited control beyond the immediate vicinity of the hill of Pergamum but may have possessed a patronage or hegemonial influence in towns such as Pitane, what is evident is that this was no unified state in a geographical sense.